Celsus Library in Ephesus Turkey
Celsus Library is a typical structure of architectural style prevalent in the period of Emperor Hadrian, dating back to 2. Century AD. The most well-known building of Ephesus City was built to honor the proconsul (governor) of the Asian province Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, by his son Tiberius Julius Aquila. Known as the third largest library of the Ancient World after Alexandria and Pergamon libraries.
Celsus Library locates at the corner of Curetes Street and Marble Road in the center of the city, just to the left of the Commercial Agora. It rests on a nine-stepped podium 21m in length, the facade is richly decorated with relief carvings and has two stories that visitors can see – each with three pairs of columns capped with Corinthian capitals. The first story’s pillars are taller than the 2. story’s pillars for giving perspective to the building. Under the building, there is a burial chamber in which the stunning tomb of the governor locates. The Celsus Library had three entrance doorways flanked by four statues located in niches. These figures represented four qualities associated with the late governor: wisdom (Sophia), intelligence (eunoia), knowledge (episteme), and virtue (arete).
Celsus Library was destroyed by fire during a Gothic invasion in 3. Century AD. However, the facade survived, repairs were made to the library in the 4th century and a fountain was added in front. After the destruction of the 7 century AD. Earthquake the library was abundant like the whole city.
In the 1970s, was re-elected with the aid of the Austrian Archaeological Institute and became the most well-restored building of Ephesus City.